Influence of medial open wedge high tibial osteotomy on tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance
Wissenschaftlicher Artikel/Review - 23.04.2021
Hodel Sandro, Zindel Christoph, Jud Lukas, Vlachopoulos Lazaros, Fürnstahl Philipp, Fucentese Sandro F
Medial open wedge high tibial osteotomy (MOWHTO) is an effective treatment option for realignment of a varus knee. However, a simple supra-tuberositary osteotomy can lead to patella baja and potentially increases the tibial tuberosity-trochlear groove distance (TTTG). The purpose of this study was to quantify the influence of MOWHTO on TTTG.
Three-dimensional (3D) surface models of five lower extremities with a varus hip-knee-ankle angle (HKA) and a borderline TTTG (≥ 15 mm), five lower extremities with a varus HKA and a normal TTTG (< 15 mm) and a 3D statistical shape model (SSM) of a neutrally aligned healthy knee were analysed by simulating MOWHTO with a stepwise increment of one degree of valgisation from the preoperative coronal deformity (0°-15°) for each patient, resulting in a total of 165 simulations. Postoperative 3D TTTG and tibial torsion (TT) were measured for each simulation. A mathematical formula was developed to calculate the increase of TTTG after MOWHTO. Mean differences between simulated and calculated TTTG were analysed.
Mean preoperative HKA was 6.5 ± 3.0° varus (range 0.8°-11.5°). Mean TTTG increased from 14.2 ± 3.2 mm (range 9.6-19.1) preoperatively to 18.8 ± 3.8 mm (range 14.5-25.0) postoperatively (p = 0.001). TTTG increased approximately linear by + 0.5 ± 0.2° (range 0.3-0.8) per 1° of valgisation with a high positive correlation (0.99, p = 0.001) from 0° to 15°. Mean difference between simulated and calculated TTTG was 0.03 ± 0.02 mm (range 0.01-0.07) per 1° of valgisation (p < 0.001).
MOWHTO results in an approximately linear increase in TTTG of + 0.5 mm per 1° of valgisation in the range from 0° to 15° and the lateralisation of the tibial tuberosity can be calculated reliably using the described formula. Preoperative analysis of TTTG in patients undergoing MOWHTO may prevent unintentional patellofemoral malalignment.
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