Nelfinavir and lenalidomide/dexamethasone in patients with lenalidomide-refractory multiple myeloma. A phase I/II Trial (SAKK 39/10)
Journal Paper/Review - Aug 27, 2019
Hitz Felicitas, Driessen Christoph, Mey U, Samaras P, Vilei S Berardi, Stüdeli S, Rondeau S, Seipel K, Novak U, Silzle Tobias, Besse Lenka, Hess Dagmar, Pabst T, Kraus Marianne, Swiss Group for Clinical Cancer Research SAKK
The antiretroviral agent nelfinavir has antimyeloma activity and can overcome resistance to bortezomib. Our phase I/II trial investigated whether adding nelfinavir to lenalidomide-dexamethasone can overcome lenalidomide resistance in lenalidomide-refractory multiple myeloma (MM). Twenty-nine patients were included (high-risk cytogenetic aberrations 31%; ≥2 prior therapy lines 93%; lenalidomide-bortezomib double-refractory 34%). Twenty-four patients (83%) had prior bortezomib and 10 (34%) were lenalidomide-bortezomib double-refractory. They received four cycles of nelfinavir 2500 mg/day with standard-dose lenalidomide (25 mg days 1-21) and dexamethasone (40/20 mg days 1, 8, 15, 22). Minor response or better was achieved in 16 patients (55%; 95% CI 36-74%), including 40% of those who were lenalidomide-bortezomib double-refractory, and partial response or better in nine patients (31%; 95% CI 15-51%). Median progression-free survival was 3.4 (95% CI 2.0-4.9) months and median overall survival 21.6 (13.0-50.1) months. Lenalidomide-related pneumonitis, pneumonia, and neutropenic fever occurred, but there were no unexpected adverse events. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed a 45% (95% CI 40-51%) reduction in total proteasome activity from baseline and significant induction of unfolded protein response and autophagy. Thus, nelfinavir-lenalidomide-dexamethasone is an active oral combination in lenalidomide-refractory MM.