Diagnostic and prognostic value of cystatin C in acute heart failure
Journal Paper/Review - Jul 26, 2017
Breidthardt Tobias, Nestelberger Thomas, Boeddinghaus Jasper, Badertscher Patrick, Barata Sara, Shrestha Samyut, Gayat Etienne, Kozhuharov Nikola, Twerenbold Raphael, Rassouli Frank, Ziller Ronny, Sabti Zaid, Mueller Christian
The accurate early diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with acute heart failure (AHF) is an unmet clinical need. Cystatin C might improve the early detection of AKI.
207 patients presenting to the emergency department with AHF were enrolled. Cystatin C was measured in plasma in a blinded fashion at presentation and serially thereafter. The potential of Cystatin C levels to predict AKI was assessed as the primary endpoint. Long-term mortality was assessed as a secondary endpoint.
At presentation, creatinine (140μmol/L [91-203] vs. 97μmol/L [76-132], p<0.01) and Cystatin C (2.00mg/L [1.30-3.08] vs. 1.45mg/L [1.00-1.90], p<0.01) levels were significantly higher in AKI compared to Non-AKI patients. The diagnostic accuracy for AKI quantified by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was mediocre and comparable for both markers (creatinine 0.68; 95%CI 0.58-78 vs. Cystatin C 0.67; 95%CI 0.58-0.76). Serial measurements of Cystatin C did not further increase the prognostic accuracy for AKI. Cystatin C levels were significantly higher in decedents than in survivors (1.90mg/L [1.30-2.70] vs. 1.30mg/L [1.0-1.6], p<0.001). The combination of Cystatin C and BNP levels significantly improved the prediction of mortality provided by either parameter alone. In multivariable regression analysis Cystatin C remained independently associated with mortality (HR 1.41; 95%CI 1.02-1.95).
Plasma Cystatin C levels do not adequately predict AKI in patients with AHF. However, in multivariable regression analysis Cystatin C predicted mortality after the adjustment for baseline renal function, AKI, BNP levels and heart failure risk factors.