Ritonavir, nelfinavir, saquinavir and lopinavir induce proteotoxic stress in acute myeloid leukemia cells and sensitize them for proteasome inhibitor treatment at low micromolar drug concentrations
Journal Paper/Review - Dec 25, 2013
Kraus Marianne, Müller-Ide Hendrik, Rückrich Thomas, Bader Jürgen, Overkleeft Herman, Driessen Christoph
Protein metabolism is an innovative potential therapeutic target for AML. Proteotoxic stress (PS) sensitizes malignant cells for proteasome inhibitor treatment. Some HIV protease inhibitors (HIV-PI) induce PS and may therefore be combined with proteasome inhibitors to achieve PS-targeted therapy of AML.
We investigated the effects of all nine approved HIV-PI alone and in combination with proteasome inhibitors on AML cell lines and primary cells in vitro.
Ritonavir induced cytotoxicity and PS at clinically achievable concentrations, and induced synergistic PS-triggered apoptosis with bortezomib. Saquinavir, nelfinavir and lopinavir were likewise cytotoxic against primary AML cells, triggered PS-induced apoptosis, inhibited AKT-phosphorylation and showed synergistic cytotoxicity with bortezomib and carfilzomib at low micromolar concentrations. Exclusively nelfinavir inhibited intracellular proteasome activity, including the β2 proteasome activity that is not targeted by bortezomib/carfilzomib.
Of the nine currently approved HIV-PI, ritonavir, saquinavir, nelfinavir and lopinavir can sensitize AML primary cells for proteasome inhibitor treatment at low micromolar concentrations and may therefore be tested clinically toward a proteotoxic stress targeted therapy of AML.