Allosteric HSP70 inhibitors perturb mitochondrial proteostasis and overcome proteasome inhibitor resistance in multiple myeloma.
Journal Paper/Review - Jul 18, 2022
Ferguson Ian D, Lin Yu-Hsiu T, Lam Christine, Shao Hao, Tharp Kevin M, Hale Martina, Kasap Corynn, Mariano Margarette C, Kishishita Audrey, Patiño Escobar Bonell, Mandal Kamal, Steri Veronica, Wang Donghui, Phojanakong Paul, Tuomivaara Sami T, Hann Byron, Driessen Christoph, Van Ness Brian, Gestwicki Jason E, Wiita Arun P
Proteasome inhibitor (PI) resistance remains a central challenge in multiple myeloma. To identify pathways mediating resistance, we first mapped proteasome-associated genetic co-dependencies. We identified heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) chaperones as potential targets, consistent with proposed mechanisms of myeloma cells overcoming PI-induced stress. We therefore explored allosteric HSP70 inhibitors (JG compounds) as myeloma therapeutics. JG compounds exhibited increased efficacy against acquired and intrinsic PI-resistant myeloma models, unlike HSP90 inhibition. Shotgun and pulsed SILAC mass spectrometry demonstrated that JGs unexpectedly impact myeloma proteostasis by destabilizing the 55S mitoribosome. Our data suggest JGs have the most pronounced anti-myeloma effect not through inhibiting cytosolic HSP70 proteins but instead through mitochondrial-localized HSP70, HSPA9/mortalin. Analysis of myeloma patient data further supports strong effects of global proteostasis capacity, and particularly HSPA9 expression, on PI response. Our results characterize myeloma proteostasis networks under therapeutic pressure while motivating further investigation of HSPA9 as a specific vulnerability in PI-resistant disease.