Complications, Costs, and Quality Outcomes of Patients Undergoing Cervical Deformity Surgery With Intraoperative BMP Use
Journal Paper/Review - Nov 15, 2020
Varshneya Kunal, Wadhwa Harsh, Pendharkar Arjun V, Medress Zachary A, Stienen Martin N., Ratliff John K, Veeravagu Anand
An epidemiological study using national administrative data from the MarketScan database.
The aim of this study was to identify the impact of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) on postoperative outcomes in patients undergoing adult cervical deformity (ACD) surgery.
SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA
BMP has been shown to stimulate bone growth and improve fusion rates in spine surgery. However, the impact of BMP on reoperation rates and postoperative complication rate is controversial.
We queried the MarketScan database to identify patients who underwent ACD surgery from 2007 to 2015. Patients were stratified by BMP use in the index operation. Patients <18 years and those with any history of tumor or trauma were excluded. Baseline demographics and comorbidities, postoperative complication rates, and reoperation rates were analyzed.
A total of 13,549 patients underwent primary ACD surgery, of which 1155 (8.5%) had intraoperative BMP use. The overall 90-day complication rate was 27.6% in the non-BMP cohort and 31.1% in the BMP cohort (P < 0.05). Patients in the BMP cohort had longer average length of stay (4.0 days vs. 3.7 days, P < 0.05) but lower revision surgery rates at 90 days (14.5% vs. 28.3%, P < 0.05), 6 months (14.9% vs. 28.6%, P < 0.05), 1 year (15.7% vs. 29.2%, P < 0.05), and 2 years (16.5% vs. 29.9%, P < 0.05) postoperatively. BMP use was associated with higher payments throughout the 2-year follow-up period ($107,975 vs. $97,620, P < 0.05). When controlling for baseline group differences, BMP use independently increased the odds of postoperative complication (odds ratio [OR] 1.22, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1-1.4) and reduced the odds of reoperation throughout 2 years of follow-up (OR 0.49, 95% CI 0.4-0.6).
Intraoperative BMP use has benefits for fusion integrity in ACD surgery but is associated with increased postoperative complication rate. Spine surgeons should weigh these benefits and drawbacks to identify optimal candidates for BMP use in ACD surgery.
LEVEL OF EVIDENCE