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Augmented reality-guided periacetabular osteotomy-proof of concept

Journal Paper/Review - Nov 17, 2020

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Citation
Kiarostami P, Dennler C, Roner S, Sutter R, Fürnstahl P, Farshad M, Rahm S, Zingg P. Augmented reality-guided periacetabular osteotomy-proof of concept. J Orthop Surg Res 2020; 15:540.
Project
Type
Journal Paper/Review (English)
Journal
J Orthop Surg Res 2020; 15
Publication Date
Nov 17, 2020
Issn Print
Issn Electronic
1749-799X
Pages
540
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Brief description/objective

BACKGROUND
The Ganz' periacetabular osteotomy (PAO) consists of four technically challenging osteotomies (OT), namely, supraacetabular (saOT), pubic (pOT), ischial (iOT), and retroacetabular OT (raOT).

PURPOSE
We performed a proof of concept study to test (1) the feasibility of augmented reality (AR) guidance for PAO, (2) precision of the OTs guided by AR compared to the freehand technique performed by an experienced PAO surgeon, and (3) the effect of AR on performance depending on experience.

METHODS
A 3D preoperative plan of a PAO was created from segmented computed tomography (CT) data of an anatomic plastic pelvis model (PPM). The plan was then embedded in a software application for an AR head-mounted device. Soft tissue coverage was imitated using foam rubber. The 3D plan was then registered onto the PPM using an anatomical landmark registration. Two surgeons (one experienced and one novice PAO surgeon) each performed 15 freehand (FH) and 15 AR-guided PAOs. The starting point distances and angulation between the planned and executed OT planes for the FH and the AR-guided PAOs were compared in post-intervention CTs.

RESULTS
AR guidance did not affect the performance of the expert surgeon in terms of the mean differences between the planned and executed starting points, but the raOT angle was more accurate as compared to FH PAO (p = 0.0027). AR guidance increased the accuracy of the performance of the novice surgeon for iOT (p = 0.03). An intraarticular osteotomy performed by the novice surgeon with the FH technique could be observed only once.

CONCLUSION
AR guidance of osteotomies for PAOs is feasible and seems to increase accuracy. The effect is more accentuated for less-experienced surgeons.

CLINICAL RELEVANCE
This is the first proof of concept study documenting the feasibility of AR guidance for PAO. Based on these findings, further studies are essential for elaborating on the potential merits of AR guidance to increase the accuracy of complex surgical procedures.